The three main sources that I cite in articles on this blog are Nāṉ Yār?, Upadēśa Undiyār and Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, because these are the three texts in which Bhagavan expressed the fundamental principles of his teachings in the most comprehensive, systematic, clear and coherent manner, but though there is a complete translation of Nāṉ Yār? on my website, I have not till now given a complete translation of all the verses of either Upadēśa Undiyār or Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu in one place, so since friends often write to me asking for such a translation of these texts, I have decided to give a complete translation of each of them here. Therefore in this article I give a translation of all the verses of Upadēśa Undiyār (which Bhagavan composed first in Tamil and later translated into Sanskrit, Telugu and Malayalam under the title Upadēśa Sāram, ‘The Essence of Spiritual Teachings’), and in a subsequent article I will likewise give a translation of all the verses of Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu.
In both these texts Bhagavan expressed the fundamental principles of his teachings in the style of sūtras or aphorisms, so though each verse is relatively short, it is packed with deep meaning and is rich in implications, and hence they require explanation in order for us to understand them more deeply and completely. However no explanation of them should be considered complete, because no matter how much we may study and reflect on their meaning, we can always find fresh depth of meaning and wealth of implications in them, and consequently our understanding of them can become more clear, as I often find while answering questions or replying to comments on this blog, because when I cite and apply these verses in different contexts my understanding of them is deepened and enriched.
Therefore in this article, instead of attempting to give any new explanations of these verses, after each one I will give a list of links in reverse chronological order to places in this blog where I have already cited, explained and discussed it. Later I intend to post a copy of this translation on my website, but until I do so I will try to keep the list of links for each verse up to date by adding new links as and when I write any further explanations of any of these verses.
Introductory verses by Sri Muruganar
Concluding verses of praise by Sri Muruganar
LIKE UḶḶADU NĀṞPADU AND SOME of the other important Tamil works of Bhagavan Sri Ramana, Upadēśa Undiyār was composed at the request of Muruganar. In order to understand correctly what Bhagavan teaches us in this text, it is necessary for us to know the context in which he composed it.
Muruganar, who was not only Bhagavan’s foremost disciple but also a great Tamil scholar and poet, first came to him in September 1923, and before coming he composed a song called Dēśika Padigam, which he offered to him on his arrival. Soon after that he composed another song entitled Tiruvembāvai, and on seeing the poetic beauty of these verses and the lofty ideas contained in them, Bhagavan remarked, ‘This is in the style of Manikkavacakar. Can you sing like Manikkavacakar?’. Muruganar was taken aback on hearing these words, and exclaimed, ‘Where is my ignorant mind, which is as blind as an owl in daylight, and which is darker than the darkness of night? And where is the self-experience (ātma-anubhuti) of Manikkavacakar, in whom the darkness of delusion had vanished and in whom true knowledge (mey-jñāna) had surged forth? To compare my base mind with his exalted experience is like comparing a fire-fly with the bright stars’. When Muruganar thus expressed his own deeply felt unworthiness, by his glance of grace Bhagavan shone forth in his heart, thereby making his mind blossom, enabling him to compose the great work Śrī Ramaṇa Sannidhi Muṟai, which in later years Bhagavan himself declared to be equal to Manikkavacakar’s Tiruvācakam.
Śrī Ramaṇa Sannidhi Muṟai is a collection of more than 120 songs composed by Muruganar in praise of Bhagavan, and many of them are sung in the same style and metres as the songs of Tiruvācakam. Among the songs in Tiruvācakam, there is one song of 20 verses called Tiruvundiyār, in which Manikkavacakar sings about some of the līlās or divine games played by Lord Siva. Therefore in 1927 when Muruganar began to compose a song called Tiruvundiyār in praise of Bhagavan, he decided to follow a similar theme, and thus he started to sing about various līlās played by several Gods, taking all those Gods to be none other than Bhagavan Ramana himself.
Once some devotees asked Sadhu Om, ‘Kavyakantha Ganapati Sastri claimed that Bhagavan is an incarnation or avatāra of Subrahmanya. Other devotees say that he is an incarnation of Siva. What was Muruganar’s opinion? According to him, of which God was Bhagavan an incarnation?’, to which he replied with a smile, ‘According to Muruganar, it is the other way around. His conviction was that all Gods are incarnations or manifestations of Bhagavan’. This conviction of Muruganar’s is beautifully expressed by him in his song Tiruvundiyār.
Having attained self-knowledge by the grace of Bhagavan, Muruganar knew from his own direct experience that Bhagavan is the one unlimited supreme reality, and that all Gods and divine incarnations are truly manifestations of that same supreme reality. Although the supreme reality can manifest itself in any number of divine names and forms, the highest of all those manifestations is the name and form of the sadguru. Therefore being an exemplary disciple, Muruganar was drawn in devotion only to the name and form of his sadguru, Bhagavan Ramana, as he expresses beautifully in Śrī Ramaṇa Jñāna Bōdham, volume 3, verse 1023:
அறியாதே னல்ல னநேகர்போற் றோன்று
மிறைவ ரெலாருமொன் றென்றே — அறிந்து
மவரனைவ ருள்ளு மவாவியென் சிந்தை
சிவரமணன் பாலே செலும்.
aṟiyādē ṉalla ṉanēkarpōṯ ṟōṉḏṟu
miṟaiva relārumoṉ ḏṟeṉḏṟē — aṟindu
mavaraṉaiva ruḷḷu mavāviyeṉ cintai
śivaramaṇaṉ bālē selum.
பதச்சேதம்: அறியாதேன் அல்லன். அநேகர் போல் தோன்றும் இறைவர் எலாரும் ஒன்று என்றே அறிந்தும், அவர் அனைவர் உள்ளும் அவாவி என் சிந்தை சிவரமணன் பாலே செலும்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟiyādēṉ allaṉ. anēkar pōl tōṉḏṟum iṟaivar elārum oṉḏṟu eṉḏṟē aṟindum, avar aṉaivar uḷḷum avāvi eṉ cintai śiva-ramaṇaṉ pālē selum.
English translation: It is not that I do not know. Though I know that all Gods, who appear as if many, are one, among all of them my mind flows lovingly only towards Siva-Ramana.
Hence, even when he had occasion to sing about the līlās of some of the different names and forms in which the supreme reality had manifested itself, he was able to sing about those names and forms only as various manifestations of his Lord and sadguru, Bhagavan Ramana.
Thus in Tiruvundiyār Muruganar sings about the līlās of Vinayaka, Subrahmanya, Vishnu and his various incarnations such as Rama and Krishna, Siva, Buddha and Jesus, taking all these Gods to be manifestations of Bhagavan Ramana. Tiruvundiyār is divided into two parts, the first part consisting of 137 verses (Sannidhi Murai, vv. 1277-1413) about the līlās of various Gods narrated in the Hindu Purāṇas, and the second part consisting of 7 verses (Sannidhi Murai, vv. 1414-1420) about Buddha upholding the dharma of compassion (vv. 1-5) and Jesus Christ suffering crucifixion to expiate the sins of others (vv. 6-7).
In the first part of Tiruvundiyār Muruganar sings about Vinayaka breaking the axle of his father’s chariot (1-2), about Subrahmanya subduing the ego of Brahma (3), giving upadēśa to Siva (4-9) and playing with Vishnu (10-11), about Vishnu killing Hiranaya (12) and bestowing grace upon Mahabali (13-16), about Rama being merciful to Ravana (17), about Krishna teaching Arjuna his duty (18), and about Siva drinking poison (19), subduing Kali by his dance (20-21), plucking off one of the heads of Brahma (22), killing Andhakasura (23), burning the Tripurasuras with a mere laugh (24-34), punishing Daksha (35-36), destroying Jalandharasura (37), flaying the elephant (38), burning Kama (39-51), kicking Yama (52-61), showing compassion to Ravana (62-66), blessing Brahma and Vishnu when they worshipped him in the form of Annamalai, having failed to reach his head and feet (67-69), and finally enlightening the ascetics in the Daruka Forest (70-137). While singing about these līlās, Muruganar sings of them as the līlās of Bhagavan Ramana, who had manifested as all these various Gods.
It was in the context of the last līlā related in the first part of Tiruvundiyār that the work Upadēśa Undiyār came into existence. Having sung in verses 70 to 102 how Bhagavan in the form of Siva had appeared in the Daruka Forest to subdue the pride of the ascetics (tapasvis) and bring them to the path of liberation, Muruganar came to the point where Siva was to give them his spiritual teachings (upadēśa). Thinking that it would not be appropriate for him to decide what teachings Siva would have given in order to uplift the ascetics from their then level of maturity, in which they were blinded by their attachment to the path of ritualistic action (karma), and to elevate their minds gradually till they would be fit to come to the direct path to liberation, Muruganar prayed to Bhagavan to reveal the essence of the teachings which he had himself given to the ascetics in those ancient days, when he had manifested in their midst in the form of Siva. Accordingly in verses 103 to 132 of the first part of Tiruvundiyār (verses 1379 to 1408 of Sannidhi Murai) Bhagavan composed the essence of the upadēśa that Siva gave to the ascetics in the Daruka Forest.
While composing these thirty verses, which he did in one sitting, Bhagavan discussed in detail with Muruganar all the ideas which were to be presented one after another in a carefully arranged and balanced sequence, and in the course of these discussions the original drafts of verses 16, 28 and 30 were composed by Muruganar and were then revised by Bhagavan. Such was the close co-operation with which they worked together.
These thirty verses form the main text (nūl) of Upadēśa Undiyār, and Bhagavan subsequently translated them into Telugu, Sanskrit and Malayalam under the title Upadēśa Saram (The Essence of Teachings). In Tamil the entire work consists of a prefatory verse (pāyiram) composed by Muruganar, six introductory verses (upōdghātam) that Bhagavan selected from Muruganar’s Tiruvundiyār in order to present the teachings in their proper context, the main text (nūl) of thirty verses, and five concluding verses of praise (vāṙttu), which are the last five verses of the first part of Tiruvundiyār.
In each of the verses of the upōdghātam, nūl and vāṙttu the final word of the second and third lines is உந்தீபற (undīpaṟa), which is a poetic elongation of the verb உந்திபற (undipaṟa), in which பற (paṟa) is the root and an imperative form of a verb that means to fly, hover, flutter or float in the air, and உந்தி (undi) seems to have been the name of an ancient game played by women, which was perhaps an early non-competitive form of what later evolved into the modern competitive sports of ball badminton and badminton, and the aim of which may have been for the group of players to keep the ball or shuttlecock flying about in the air without touching the ground for as long as possible. உந்தி (undi) may therefore have also meant the ball or shuttlecock used in such a game, in which case உந்தீ (undī) would be a vocative (or eighth case) form of it, so ‘உந்தீ பற’ (undī paṟa) may have been an exclamation that meant ‘ball, fly’ or ‘shuttlecock, fly’. The Tiruvundiyār song composed by Manikkavacakar was perhaps intended to be sung while playing this game, and hence he adopted a metre in which this word occurs at the end of the second and third lines of each verse. When these verses are translated into English, உந்தீபற (undīpaṟa) is obviously to be treated as a poetic expletive, but it is worth noting that it does lend a very joyful and playful spirit to the profound spiritual teachings that Bhagavan gives us in Upadēśa Undiyār.
In order to understand what Bhagavan is teaching us in Upadēśa Undiyār, particularly in the first fifteen verses, we need to read and carefully consider the upōdghātam and the summary of the story contained in it. Though in the Purāṇas the ascetics who were living in the Daruka Forest are described as ‘rishis’ (ṛṣis) who were performing tapas or austerities, what actually was their state of mind, what kind of tapas were they performing, and what was it that they were seeking to achieve through their tapas?
These so-called rishis were following the path of kāmya karma (ritualistic actions performed for the fulfilment of temporal desires), which is the path prescribed by the pūrva mīmāṁsā, a system of philosophy focused on the interpretation and practice of the Karma Kāṇḍa, the preliminary (and by far the largest) portion of the Vedas, which is concerned with performance of sacrifices and other ritualistic actions. Not knowing that the true goal of life is liberation, which is eradication of ego, they exhibited their ignorance by their actions such as the performance of various kinds of yāgas and yajñas (sacrificial rites), whereby they sought to attain powers, siddhis and other sources of enjoyment both in this world and the next. Being adept in the performance of such sacrificial rites and in the use of other techniques such as mantras, yantras and tantras, they had become intoxicated with conceit. Their pride in the power and efficacy of their karmas (ritualistic actions) was so great that they had even come to believe that there is no God except karma. ‘Karma alone is of foremost importance. The efforts we make in performing karmas have the power to yield their own fruit; they must yield their fruit; even God cannot prevent them from yielding fruit. So there is no need for us to be concerned about any God other than our own karmas’ – such was their arrogant attitude.
Thus, though in the Purāṇas they are politely referred to as ‘rishis’, their state of mind reveals that they were in fact only students in the first standard of the school of bhakti described in chapter two of the supplement to The Path of Sri Ramana. Can the karmas that they were performing for the fulfilment of their own selfish desires be called real tapas? As Bhagavan taught us in verse 30 of Upadēśa Undiyār, real tapas is nothing but complete cessation of ego, the false awareness ‘I am this body’, which is what gives rise to the sense of doership, ‘I am doing karma’.
Since the ascetics had thus strayed so far from the path that leads to the real goal of egolessness, it was necessary for Lord Siva, the ocean of compassion, to make them understand the error of their ways and guide them back to the proper path. Therefore he manifested in the form of a mendicant and made them understand that even their most powerful karmas were rendered powerless in front of him. Thus their pride was subdued and they prayed to him for salvation.
Knowing how gross and unrefined the minds of the ascetics had become due to their longstanding attachment to karma, Siva knew that it would not be possible to bring them immediately to the subtle path of self-investigation (ātma-vicāra), which alone is the direct path to liberation. Therefore he had to guide them towards the path of self-investigation in a gradual manner. That is why in the first fifteen verses of Upadēśa Undiyār it was necessary for Bhagavan to summarise the paths of niṣkāmya karma, bhakti and yōga, which Siva first had to teach to the ascetics in order to elevate their minds gradually to the level of maturity in which they could understand that liberation can ultimately be attained only by means of self-investigation. Only after summarising those paths and explaining how they are each intended to lead eventually to the path of self-investigation, which is the true path of jñāna, could he begin to explain this path in more detail from verse 16 onwards.
Either because they do not know the context in which he composed this work, or because they have not carefully considered the connection between the context and what he taught in it, many people wrongly assume that Upadēśa Undiyār or Upadēśa Sāram is the essence of Bhagavan Ramana’s own teachings. However, if we consider the context and what he wrote in the first fifteen verses, it should be clear that the intention with which he composed this work was to summarise not his own teachings but the teachings that Siva gave in ancient days to the ascetics in the Daruka Forest to suit their level of spiritual maturity.
As Bhagavan often used to say, whatever spiritual teachings are given must be suited to the grasping power and maturity of whomever they are given to, so many different levels of teachings and practices are necessary to suit the needs of people of many different levels of spiritual development (see for example section 107 of Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi (1978 edition, page 103; 2006 edition, page 105), where it is recorded that he said that the instructions to be given ‘differ according to the temperaments of the individuals and according to the spiritual ripeness of their minds’). Since the ascetics to whom Siva gave his teachings were to be elevated by him from a very low level of spiritual maturity, it was necessary for him to begin by giving them teachings that they would be willing to accept and therefore able to grasp and put into practice, and then he had to lead them gradually from the grosser forms of spiritual practice such as pūjā, japa, dhyāna and prāṇāyāma towards the most refined, namely self-investigation, which is the simple practice of self-attentiveness.
Therefore we should not assume that all the sādhanas or spiritual practices that Bhagavan discusses in Upadēśa Undiyār are his own direct teachings. Though it is true that during his lifetime he had to give instructions concerning almost every kind of spiritual practice in order to guide those who were already following such practices and were not yet willing to come to the direct path of self-investigation, what actually was the core and essence of his teachings? Can it be said that pūjā, japa, dhyāna and prāṇāyāma are core elements of his teachings? Was it to teach such practices that he appeared on earth in our present age?
Though he acknowledged the efficacy of such practices as indirect means that, if practiced with devotion and without desire for achieving any selfish aim, would gradually purify the mind and thereby sooner or later lead one to the direct path of self-investigation (as indicated by him in verse 3 of Upadēśa Undiyār), the main reason he appeared in human form in modern times was not merely to give his approval to such indirect practices, which have already been expounded in detail in ancient texts. The principal purpose of his life was to teach us why and how to practise the simple and direct path of self-investigation, which is the only means by which we can be aware of ourself as we actually are and thereby eradicate ego. That is why his teachings were focussed on the practice of self-investigation, which bypasses the need for any other kind of spiritual practice.
In 1928, one year after he had composed Upadēśa Undiyār, Muruganar prayed to him, ‘So that we may be saved, reveal to us the nature of reality and the means by which to attain it’ (Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu pāyiram: introductory verse), in response to which Bhagavan composed Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu, in which the only practice he expounded was self-investigation, and he made no more than a few indirect references to other practices. Therefore, the real essence of his teachings is only the path of self-investigation, which he has expounded in both Uḷḷadu Nāṟpadu and the last fifteen verses of Upadēśa Undiyār.
Though he briefly discussed pūjā, japa, dhyāna and prāṇāyāma in the first fifteen verses of Upadēśa Undiyār, if we carefully consider what he actually says in these verses, we will see that he is explaining firstly how each of these practices can ultimately lead one to the path of self-investigation, which alone is the direct means to eradicate ego, and secondly that self-investigation is therefore the culmination of all other varieties of spiritual practice, namely niṣkāmya karma, bhakti, yōga, and jñāna, as he says in verse 10.
In the first two verses he begins by condemning kāmya karmas (actions performed for the fulfilment of temporal desires), declaring that they will not lead to liberation but will only immerse the doer deeper and deeper into the ocean of karma (action). In verse 3 he teaches that action can be conducive to the attainment of liberation only if it is done for the love of God and without any desire for its fruit, because it will then purify the mind and thereby enable one to recognise that the means to liberation is only self-investigation. In verses 4 to 7 he discusses the various kinds of desireless action (niṣkāmya karma), namely pūjā (worship or adoration of God), japa (repetition of a mantra or name of God) and dhyāna (meditation upon a name or form of God), which are done respectively by body, speech and mind, and each succeeding one of which is more efficacious in purifying the mind than the preceding one.
Then in verse 8 he says that rather than meditation upon God as other than oneself, it is better to meditate upon him as not other than oneself, and thereby he reveals how the paths of niṣkāmya pūjā, japa and dhyāna must eventually lead to the path of self-investigation, which is what he described as ananya-bhāva (meditation on what is not other), and which he said is ‘aṉaittiṉum uttamam’, ‘the best among all’, thereby implying that among all the practices of bhakti and also all other forms of spiritual practice it is the best, in the sense that it is the most effective means to purify the mind. He then says in verse 9 that to abide in one’s own true state of being, which is attained by the strength of such ananya-bhāva (self-attentiveness) and which transcends meditation (in the sense of mental activity, as opposed to self-attentiveness, which is a cessation of all such activity), is the truth of para-bhakti (supreme devotion). Thus, in verses 3 to 9 Bhagavan reveals how the paths of desireless action (niṣkāmya karma) and devotion (bhakti) lead to and culminate in the path of self-investigation, which in turn establishes one in the state of self-abidance, which is the true state of liberation. He then concludes this series of verses by saying in verse 10 that subsiding and being in one’s real nature, which is the source from which one had risen as a doer of action, is not only the essence of karma yōga and bhakti yōga, as described in the preceding verses, but is also the essence of rāja yōga and jñāna yōga, as described in the subsequent verses.
In verses 11 to 15 Bhagavan discusses the path of raja yōga. In verses 11 and 12 he explains that prāṇāyāma (breath-control) is an effective means to make the mind subside, but in verse 13 he warns that complete subsidence or dissolution of mind is of two kinds, namely laya and nāśa, the former being temporary and the latter being permanent. By prāṇāyāma only a temporary dissolution of the mind can be achieved, so in verse 14 he teaches us that the mind, which will subside only temporarily when the breath is restrained, should be directed on the one path of self-investigation, for then only will it attain manōnāśa, the state of destruction or permanent dissolution. Thus he reveals that the path of raja yōga must also lead one to the path of self-investigation if it is to enable one to achieve the final goal of liberation. He then concludes this second series of verses by saying in verse 15 that the great yōgi whose mind has thus been destroyed and who thereby abides as what alone is actually real has no more actions to do, because he has attained his natural state, thereby implying that our natural state is not one of doing anything but only one of just being, and that this is the goal we should be seeking.
Thus, though in verses 3 to 15 Bhagavan acknowledges the efficacy of niṣkāmya pūjā, japa, dhyāna and prāṇāyāma, he clearly implies that none of these sādhanas can be an adequate substitute for the direct path of self-investigation, but explains how each of them must finally lead one to self-investigation in order to enable one to attain the final goal of self-knowledge or liberation, which is manōnāśa or complete and permanent eradication of ego.
Having thus briefly summarized the paths of karma yōga, bhakti yōga and raja yōga in the first fifteen verses, showing how they must each sooner lead one to the practice of self-investigation, Bhagavan devotes the last fifteen verses to explaining the practice and goal of jñāna yōga, which he explains to be nothing other than the direct path of self-investigation, the simple practice of attending to and knowing the true nature of ‘I’.
கன்மமய றீர்ந்துகதி காண நெறிமுறையின்
மன்மமுல குய்ய வழங்குகெனச் — சொன்முருகற்
கெந்தைரம ணன்றொகுத் தீந்தா னுபதேச
வுந்தியார் ஞானவிளக் கோர்.
kaṉmamaya ṯīrndugati kāṇa neṟimuṟaiyiṉ
maṉmamula huyya vaṙaṅguheṉac — coṉmurugaṟ
kendairama ṇaṉḏṟohut tīndā ṉupadēśa
vundiyār ñāṉaviḷak kōr.
பதச்சேதம்: ‘கன்ம மயல் தீர்ந்து கதி காண நெறி முறையின் மன்மம் உலகு உய்ய வழங்குக’ என சொல் முருகற்கு எந்தை ரமணன் தொகுத்து ஈந்தான் உபதேச வுந்தியார் ஞான விளக்கு ஓர்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘kaṉma-mayal tīrndu gati kāṇa neṟi muṟaiyiṉ maṉmam ulahu uyya vaṙaṅguha’ eṉa sol murugaṟku endai ramaṇaṉ tohuttu īndāṉ upadēśa-v-undiyār ñāṉa viḷakku ōr.
அன்வயம்: ‘உலகு கன்ம மயல் தீர்ந்து உய்ய, கதி காண நெறி முறையின் மன்மம் வழங்குக’ என சொல் முருகற்கு எந்தை ரமணன் தொகுத்து ஈந்தான் ஞான விளக்கு உபதேச வுந்தியார் ஓர்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘ulahu kaṉma-mayal tīrndu uyya, gati kāṇa neṟi muṟaiyiṉ maṉmam vaṙaṅguha’ eṉa sol murugaṟku endai ramaṇaṉ tohuttu īndāṉ ñāṉa viḷakku upadēśa-v-undiyār ōr.
English translation: Know that Upadēśa Undiyār is a light of jñāna that our father Ramana composed and gave to Muruganar, who said, ‘For the world to be saved, giving up the delusion of karma, tell the secret of the nature of the path to experience liberation’.
Explanatory paraphrase: Know that Upadēśa Undiyār is a light of jñāna [true knowledge or pure awareness] that our father Ramana composed and gave to Muruganar, who said, ‘For [the people of] the world to give up the delusion of karma [action] and be saved [from self-ignorance], tell [us] the secret of the muṟai [nature or orderly process] of the path [way or means] to experience liberation’.
தாரு வனத்திற் றவஞ்செய் திருந்தவர்
பூருவ கன்மத்தா லுந்தீபற
போக்கறை போயின ருந்தீபற.
dāru vaṉattiṯ ṟavañcey dirundavar
pūruva kaṉmattā lundīpaṟa
pōkkaṟai pōyiṉa rundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: தாரு வனத்தில் தவம் செய்து இருந்தவர் பூருவ கன்மத்தால் போக்கறை போயினர்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): dāru vaṉattil tavam seydu irundavar pūruva kaṉmattāl pōkkaṟai pōyiṉar.
English translation: Those who were doing austerities in the Daruka forest were going to ruin by pūrva karma.
Explanatory paraphrase: Those who were doing tavam [austerities or tapas] in the Daruka forest were going to ruin by [following] pūrva karma [the path of ritualistic action as interpreted and prescribed by pūrva mīmāṁsā]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.70)
கன்மத்தை யன்றிக் கடவு ளிலையெனும்
வன்மத்த ராயின ருந்தீபற
வஞ்சச் செருக்கினா லுந்தீபற.
kaṉmattai yaṉḏṟik kaḍavu ḷilaiyeṉum
vaṉmatta rāyiṉa rundīpaṟa
vañjac cerukkiṉā lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: ‘கன்மத்தை அன்றி கடவுள் இலை’ எனும் வல் மத்தர் ஆயினர் வஞ்ச செருக்கினால்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘kaṉmattai aṉḏṟi kaḍavuḷ ilai’ eṉum val mattar āyiṉar vañja serukkiṉāl.
அன்வயம்: வஞ்ச செருக்கினால் ‘கன்மத்தை அன்றி கடவுள் இலை’ எனும் வல் மத்தர் ஆயினர்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vañja serukkiṉāl ‘kaṉmattai aṉḏṟi kaḍavuḷ ilai’ eṉum val mattar āyiṉar.
English translation: Because of delusive conceit they became intoxicated with intense pride that there is no God except karma.
Explanatory paraphrase: Because of [their] delusive conceit [or infatuation] they became [so] intoxicated [or mad] with intense pride [that they fell prey to the arrogant belief] that there is no God except karma. (Tiruvundiyār 1.71)
Note: These first two verses of the upōdghātam are verses 70 and 71 of the first part of Tiruvundiyār, and the following is a free rendering of the story narrated by Muruganar in verses 72 to 98:
Even the wives who conducted their lives with those great ascetics had become deluded, proudly believing that in all the seven worlds there were none as virtuous as themselves in venerating their husbands. (72-3) The wonderful Venkatan [Sri Ramana], who is pure awareness shining like a crystal to which no blemish can cling, appeared singing melodiously with such beauty that would make men desire womanhood. (74-5) Plundering the souls of all who saw his beauty, he wandered about carrying a trident and a skull. (76)
Knowing the cruel enmity of the ascetics, Vishnu also appeared suddenly in their midst as a virtuous maiden with tender beauty. (77) Becoming infatuated with Mohini [that beautiful maiden], all the ahaṅkāra-yōgis [egotistical ascetics] were ashamed [or afraid] when their strength was thereby destroyed. (78)
That male form that wandered there excelling in lustre was not a real form but just an imaginary appearance. (79) [What appeared in that form is] what cannot be measured [or comprehended] by speech or mind; what does not go or come; the real substance, the whole. (80) As soon as they saw his manly self, those good ladies’ ornament [of modesty and chastity] departed entirely. (81) Desiring [his] youthful beauty and drinking it with their eyes, they were intoxicated and enchanted. (82) They forgot their virtue; they forgot their reputation; they forgot themselves; they followed after [him]. (83)
Coming to know about the downfall of their wives, the great ascetic brahmins who knew such things became agitated, quaking [with pain, grief or anger]. (84) [Seeing] that their agreeable life helpmates had become so contemptible, they trembled [with rage]. (85) What a wonder that those who so clearly saw the defects [faults or errors] that took birth in the case of their wives could not see their own defects! (86) If one sees one’s own defects like [one sees] the defects of others, then will even the slightest evil attach to one’s soul? [an adaptation of verse 190 of Tirukkuṟaḷ] (87)
Saying ‘What defilement of the chastity of [our] wives!’, to kill him who is the first [God, the primal being] they thought of a plan. (88) With malicious anger those who had vast learning raised a raging sinful black magic sacrificial fire. (89) To devour the life of Purāri [Tripurāri, Lord Siva, the destroyer of the three demon cities, who did so with a mere laugh or smile], those who did not have subtle awareness [or understanding] discharged a pouncing tiger [from the sacrificial fire]. (90) Flaying it with his fingernail, he aptly wore the skin of that tiger [around his waist]. The ascetics stood perplexed [terrified or abashed]. (91)
To destroy him they unleashed furious serpents, but he transformed them into fine ornaments [to wear] on his poison-adorned throat. (92) After that parātpara Venkatan [Sri Ramana, the highest of the high] seized in his hands the deer, axe, fire and drum that they conjured up and set upon him. (93) Laughing in a terrifying manner and roaring like thunder, they discharged a whirling and exceedingly white skull on the handsome youth. (94) To the wonder of many, he aptly wore that white skull as an ornament for his head. (95) Hordes of demons [conjured up by them] coming close to him fell unconscious at his feet. He took these as his army. (96) To kill the primal one, they conjured up and set upon him a heinous demon called Muyalagan, but he crushed it under his feet. (97) When all their efforts proved ineffectual, they became weary and understood him to be God. (98)
The final four verses of the upōdghātam are verses 99 to 102 of the first part of Tiruvundiyār, after which verses 103 to 132 are the the main text (nūl) of Upadēśa Undiyār, and verses 133 to 137 are the concluding verses of praise (vāṙttu).
கன்ம பலந்தருங் கர்த்தற் பழித்துச்செய்
கன்ம பலங்கண்டா ருந்தீபற
கர்வ மகன்றன ருந்தீபற.
kaṉma phalandaruṅ karttaṟ paṙittuccey
kaṉma phalaṅkaṇḍā rundīpaṟa
garva mahaṉḏṟaṉa rundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: கன்ம பலம் தரும் கர்த்தன் பழித்து செய் கன்ம பலம் கண்டார்; கர்வம் அகன்றனர்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): kaṉma-phalam tarum karttaṉ paṙittu sey kaṉma-phalam kaṇḍār; garvam ahaṉḏṟaṉar.
English translation: They saw the fruit of actions done disparaging God, who gives the fruit of actions. They left arrogance.
Explanatory paraphrase: They saw the fruit of actions done disparaging [spurning or disregarding] God [the kartā or ordainer], who gives karma-phala [the fruit of actions], [and hence] they left [gave up or lost] garva [their pride or arrogance]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.99)
காத்தரு ளென்று கரையக் கருணைக்கண்
சேர்த்தருள் செய்தன னுந்தீபற
சிவனுப தேசமி துந்தீபற.
kāttaru ḷeṉḏṟu karaiyak karuṇaikkaṇ
sērttaruḷ seydaṉa ṉundīpaṟa
śivaṉupa dēśami dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: காத்து அருள் என்று கரைய, கருணை கண் சேர்த்து அருள் செய்தனன் சிவன் உபதேசம் இது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): kāttu aruḷ eṉḏṟu karaiya, karuṇai kaṇ sērttu aruḷ-seydaṉaṉ śivaṉ upadēśam idu.
அன்வயம்: காத்து அருள் என்று கரைய, கருணை கண் சேர்த்து சிவன் உபதேசம் இது அருள் செய்தனன்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): kāttu aruḷ eṉḏṟu karaiya, karuṇai kaṇ sērttu śivaṉ upadēśam idu aruḷ-seydaṉaṉ.
English translation: When they wept, ‘Graciously protect’, attaching the eye of grace, Śiva graciously gave this upadēśa.
Explanatory paraphrase: When they wept [repentantly], ‘Graciously protect [or save us]’, fixing [his] eye of grace [upon them], Śiva graciously gave this upadēśa [spiritual teaching]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.100)
உட்கொண் டொழுக வுபதேச சாரத்தை
யுட்கொண் டெழுஞ்சுக முந்தீபற
வுட்டுன் பொழிந்திடு முந்தீபற.
uṭkoṇ ḍoṙuha vupadēśa sārattai
yuṭkoṇ ḍeṙuñsukha mundīpaṟa
vuṭṭuṉ boṙindiḍu mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உள் கொண்டு ஒழுக உபதேச சாரத்தை, உள் கொண்டு எழும் சுகம்; உள் துன்பு ஒழிந்திடும்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḷ koṇḍu oṙuha upadēśa sārattai, uḷ koṇḍu eṙum sukham; uḷ tuṉbu oṙindiḍum.
அன்வயம்: உபதேச சாரத்தை உள் கொண்டு ஒழுக, சுகம் உள் கொண்டு எழும்; உள் துன்பு ஒழிந்திடும்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): upadēśa sārattai uḷ koṇḍu oṙuha, sukham uḷ koṇḍu eṙum; uḷ tuṉbu oṙindiḍum.
English translation: When one imbibes and follows upadēśa sāram, happiness will rise from within; miseries within will cease.
Explanatory paraphrase: When one imbibes and follows [this] upadēśa sāram [the essence or summary of the spiritual teachings given by Lord Siva], happiness will rise from within [and thereby] miseries within will cease [die or be destroyed]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.101)
சார வுபதேச சாரமுட் சாரவே
சேரக் களிசேர வுந்தீபற
தீரத் துயர்தீர வுந்தீபற.
sāra vupadēśa sāramuṭ cāravē
sērak kaḷisēra vundīpaṟa
tīrat tuyartīra vundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: சார உபதேச சாரம் உள் சாரவே. சேர களி சேர. தீர துயர் தீர.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): sāra upadēśa sāram uḷ sāravē. sēra kaḷi sēra. tīra tuyar tīra.
அன்வயம்: உபதேச சாரம் சார உள் சாரவே. களி சேர சேர. துயர் தீர தீர.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): upadēśa sāram sāra uḷ sāravē. kaḷi sēra sēra. tuyar tīra tīra.
English translation: May the essence of Upadēśa Sāram enter within. May joy accumulate, accumulate. May suffering cease, cease.
Explanatory paraphrase: May the sāra [essence, substance or import] of Upadēśa Sāram enter within [our heart]. May joy accumulate [or be achieved] abundantly. May suffering cease entirely. (Tiruvundiyār 1.102)
கன்மம் பயன்றரல் கர்த்தன தாணையாற்
கன்மங் கடவுளோ வுந்தீபற
கன்மஞ் சடமதா லுந்தீபற.
kaṉmam payaṉḏṟaral karttaṉa dāṇaiyāṟ
kaṉmaṅ kaḍavuḷō vundīpaṟa
kaṉmañ jaḍamadā lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: கன்மம் பயன் தரல் கர்த்தனது ஆணையால். கன்மம் கடவுளோ? கன்மம் சடம் அதால்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): kaṉmam payaṉ taral karttaṉadu āṇaiyāl. kaṉmam kaḍavuḷ-ō? kaṉmam jaḍam adāl.
அன்வயம்: கன்மம் பயன் தரல் கர்த்தனது ஆணையால். கன்மம் சடம் அதால், கன்மம் கடவுளோ?
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): kaṉmam payaṉ taral karttaṉadu āṇaiyāl. kaṉmam jaḍam adāl, kaṉmam kaḍavuḷ-ō?
English translation: Action giving fruit is by the ordainment of God. Since action is non-aware, is action God?
Explanatory paraphrase: Karma [action] giving fruit is by the ordainment of God [the kartā or ordainer]. Since karma is jaḍa [devoid of awareness], can karma be God?
வினையின் விளைவு விளிவுற்று வித்தாய்
வினைக்கடல் வீழ்த்திடு முந்தீபற
வீடு தரலிலை யுந்தீபற.
viṉaiyiṉ viḷaivu viḷivuṯṟu vittāy
viṉaikkaḍal vīṙttiḍu mundīpaṟa
vīḍu taralilai yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: வினையின் விளைவு விளிவு உற்று வித்தாய் வினை கடல் வீழ்த்திடும். வீடு தரல் இலை.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): viṉaiyiṉ viḷaivu viḷivu uṯṟu vittāy viṉai-kaḍal vīṙttiḍum. vīḍu taral ilai.
English translation: The fruit of action perishing, as seed causes to fall in the ocean of action. It is not giving liberation.
Explanatory paraphrase: The fruit of [any] action will perish [when it is experienced as part of prārabdha], [but what remains] as seed [namely viṣaya-vāsanās (also known as karma-vāsanās): inclinations to seek happiness or satisfaction in experiencing viṣayas (objects or phenomena) by doing actions of mind, speech and body] causes [one] to fall in the ocean of action. [Therefore] it [action or karma] does not give liberation.
கருத்தனுக் காக்குநிட் காமிய கன்மங்
கருத்தைத் திருத்தியஃ துந்தீபற
கதிவழி காண்பிக்கு முந்தீபற.
karuttaṉuk kākkuniṭ kāmiya kaṉmaṅ
karuttait tiruttiyaḵ dundīpaṟa
gativaṙi kāṇbikku mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: கருத்தனுக்கு ஆக்கும் நிட்காமிய கன்மம் கருத்தை திருத்தி, அஃது கதி வழி காண்பிக்கும்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): karuttaṉukku ākkum niṭkāmiya kaṉmam karuttai tirutti, aḵdu gati vaṙi kāṇbikkum.
English translation: Desireless action done for God, purifying the mind, it will show the path to liberation.
Explanatory paraphrase: Niṣkāmya karma [action not motivated by desire] done [with love] for God purifies the mind and [thereby] it will show the path to liberation [that is, it will enable one to recognise what the correct path to liberation is].
திடமிது பூசை செபமுந் தியான
முடல்வாக் குளத்தொழி லுந்தீபற
வுயர்வாகு மொன்றிலொன் றுந்தீபற.
diḍamidu pūjai jepamun dhiyāṉa
muḍalvāk kuḷattoṙi lundīpaṟa
vuyarvāhu moṉḏṟiloṉ ḏṟundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: திடம் இது: பூசை செபமும் தியானம் உடல் வாக்கு உள தொழில். உயர்வு ஆகும் ஒன்றில் ஒன்று.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): diḍam idu: pūjai jepam-um dhiyāṉam uḍal vākku uḷa toṙil. uyarvu āhum oṉḏṟil oṉḏṟu.
அன்வயம்: பூசை செபமும் தியானம் உடல் வாக்கு உள தொழில். ஒன்றில் ஒன்று உயர்வு ஆகும். இது திடம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): pūjai jepam-um dhiyāṉam uḍal vākku uḷa toṙil. oṉḏṟil oṉḏṟu uyarvu āhum. idu diḍam.
English translation: This is certain: pūjā, japa and dhyāna are actions of body, speech and mind. One than one is superior.
Explanatory paraphrase: This is certain: pūjā [worship], japa [repetition of a name of God or a sacred phrase] and dhyāna [meditation] are [respectively] actions of body, speech and mind, [and hence in this order each subsequent] one is superior to [the previous] one [in the sense that it is a more effective means to purify the mind].
எண்ணுரு யாவு மிறையுரு வாமென
வெண்ணி வழிபட லுந்தீபற
வீசனற் பூசனை யுந்தீபற.
eṇṇuru yāvu miṟaiyuru vāmeṉa
veṇṇi vaṙipaḍa lundīpaṟa
vīśaṉaṯ pūjaṉai yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: எண் உரு யாவும் இறை உரு ஆம் என எண்ணி வழிபடல் ஈசன் நல் பூசனை.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): eṇ uru yāvum iṟai uru ām eṉa eṇṇi vaṙipaḍal īśaṉ nal pūjaṉai.
English translation: Worshipping thinking that all eight forms are forms of God is good pūjā of God.
Explanatory paraphrase: Considering all the eight forms [the aṣṭa-mūrti, the eight forms or manifestations of Siva, namely the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and space), sun, moon and sentient beings (jīvas)] [or all thought-forms, namely all forms, which are just thoughts or mental phenomena] to be forms of God, worshipping [any of them] is good pūjā [worship] of God.
வழுத்தலில் வாக்குச்ச வாய்க்குட் செபத்தில்
விழுப்பமா மானத முந்தீபற
விளம்புந் தியானமி துந்தீபற.
vaṙuttalil vākkucca vāykkuṭ jepattil
viṙuppamā māṉata mundīpaṟa
viḷambun dhiyāṉami dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: வழுத்தலில், வாக்கு உச்ச, வாய்க்குள் செபத்தில் விழுப்பம் ஆம் மானதம். விளம்பும் தியானம் இது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): vaṙuttalil, vākku ucca, vāykkuḷ jepattil viṙuppam ām māṉatam. viḷambum dhiyāṉam idu.
அன்வயம்: வழுத்தலில், உச்ச வாக்கு, வாய்க்குள் செபத்தில் மானதம் விழுப்பம் ஆம். இது தியானம் விளம்பும்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vaṙuttalil, ucca vākku, vāykkuḷ jepattil māṉatam viṙuppam ām. idu dhiyāṉam viḷambum.
English translation: Rather than praising, loud voice, rather than japa within the mouth, what is done by mind is beneficial. This is called dhyāna.
Explanatory paraphrase: Rather than praising [God by chanting hymns], [japa or repetition of his name is beneficial]; [rather than japa done in a] loud voice, [japa whispered faintly within the mouth is beneficial]; [and] rather than japa within the mouth, mānasa [that which is done by mind] is beneficial [in the sense that it is a more effective means to purify the mind]. This [mental repetition or mānasika japa] is called dhyāna [meditation].
விட்டுக் கருதலி னாறுநெய் வீழ்ச்சிபோல்
விட்டிடா துன்னலே யுந்தீபற
விசேடமா முன்னவே யுந்தீபற.
viṭṭuk karudali ṉāṟuney vīṙccipōl
viṭṭiḍā duṉṉalē yundīpaṟa
viśēḍamā muṉṉavē yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: விட்டு கருதலின் ஆறு நெய் வீழ்ச்சி போல் விட்டிடாது உன்னலே விசேடம் ஆம் உன்னவே.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): viṭṭu karudaliṉ āṟu ney vīṙcci pōl viṭṭiḍādu uṉṉal-ē viśēḍam ām uṉṉa-v-ē.
அன்வயம்: விட்டு கருதலின் ஆறு நெய் வீழ்ச்சி போல் விட்டிடாது உன்னலே உன்னவே விசேடம் ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): viṭṭu karudaliṉ āṟu ney vīṙcci pōl viṭṭiḍādu uṉṉal-ē uṉṉa-v-ē viśēḍam ām.
English translation: Rather than meditating leavingly, certainly meditating unleavingly, like a river or the falling of ghee, is superior to meditate.
Explanatory paraphrase: Rather than meditating [on God] interruptedly [because of being frequently distracted by other thoughts as a result of insufficient love for him], certainly meditating uninterruptedly [without being distracted by any other thoughts because of the intensity of one’s love for him], like a river or the falling of ghee, is a better way to meditate [or is superior, when considered] [in the sense that it is a more effective means to purify the mind].
அனியபா வத்தி னவனக மாகு
மனனிய பாவமே யுந்தீபற
வனைத்தினு முத்தம முந்தீபற.
aṉiyabhā vatti ṉavaṉaha māhu
maṉaṉiya bhāvamē yundīpaṟa
vaṉaittiṉu muttama mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: அனிய பாவத்தின் அவன் அகம் ஆகும் அனனிய பாவமே அனைத்தினும் உத்தமம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṉiya-bhāvattiṉ avaṉ aham āhum aṉaṉiya-bhāvam-ē aṉaittiṉ-um uttamam.
English translation: Rather than anya-bhāva, ananya-bhāva, in which he is I, certainly is the best among all.
Explanatory paraphrase: Rather than anya-bhāva [meditation on anything other than oneself, particularly meditation on God as if he were other than oneself], ananya-bhāva [meditation on nothing other than oneself], in which he is [understood to be] I, certainly is the best among all [practices of bhakti, varieties of meditation and kinds of spiritual practice] [in the sense that it is the most effective of all means to purify the mind, and is also the only means to eradicate ego, the root of all impurities].
பாவ பலத்தினாற் பாவனா தீதசற்
பாவத் திருத்தலே யுந்தீபற
பரபத்தி தத்துவ முந்தீபற.
bhāva balattiṉāṯ bhāvaṉā tītasaṯ
bhāvat tiruttalē yundīpaṟa
parabhatti tattuva mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: பாவ பலத்தினால் பாவனாதீத சத் பாவத்து இருத்தலே பரபத்தி தத்துவம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): bhāva balattiṉāl bhāvaṉātīta sat-bhāvattu iruttal-ē para-bhatti tattuvam.
English translation: By the strength of meditation, being in sat-bhāva, which transcends bhāvanā, alone is para-bhakti tattva.
Explanatory paraphrase: By the strength [intensity, firmness or stability] of [such] meditation [ananya-bhāva or self-attentiveness], being in sat-bhāva [the state of being], which transcends [all] bhāvanā [thinking, imagination or meditation in the sense of mental activity], alone [or certainly] is para-bhakti tattva [the nature, reality or true state of supreme devotion].
உதித்த விடத்தி லொடுங்கி யிருத்த
லதுகன்மம் பத்தியு முந்தீபற
வதுயோக ஞானமு முந்தீபற.
uditta viḍatti loḍuṅgi yirutta
ladukaṉmam bhattiyu mundīpaṟa
vaduyōga ñāṉamu mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உதித்த இடத்தில் ஒடுங்கி இருத்தல்: அது கன்மம் பத்தியும்; அது யோகம் ஞானமும்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uditta iḍattil oḍuṅgi iruttal: adu kaṉmam bhatti-y-um; adu yōgam ñāṉam-um.
English translation: Being, subsiding in the place from which one rose: that is karma and bhakti; that is yōga and jñāna.
Explanatory paraphrase: Being [by inwardly] subsiding in the place from which one rose [namely one’s own real nature (ātma-svarūpa), which is pure being-awareness (sat-cit), ‘I am’]: that is [the culmination of the paths of] [niṣkāmya] karma and bhakti [as explained in the previous seven verses]; that is [also the culmination of the paths of] yōga [as will be explained in the next five verses] and jñāna [as will be explained in the final fifteen verses].
வளியுள் ளடக்க வலைபடு புட்போ
லுளமு மொடுங்குறு முந்தீபற
வொடுக்க வுபாயமி துந்தீபற.
vaḷiyuḷ ḷaḍakka valaipaḍu puṭpō
luḷamu moḍuṅguṟu mundīpaṟa
voḍukka vupāyami dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: வளி உள் அடக்க, வலை படு புள் போல் உளமும் ஒடுங்குறும். ஒடுக்க உபாயம் இது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): vaḷi uḷ aḍakka, valai paḍu puḷ pōl uḷam-um oḍuṅguṟum. oḍukka upāyam idu.
அன்வயம்: வளி உள் அடக்க, வலை படு புள் போல் உளமும் ஒடுங்குறும். இது ஒடுக்க உபாயம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vaḷi uḷ aḍakka, valai paḍu puḷ pōl uḷam-um oḍuṅguṟum. idu oḍukka upāyam.
English translation: When one restrains the breath within, like a bird caught in a net the mind also will be restrained. This is a means to restrain.
Explanatory paraphrase: When one restrains [curbs, calms or subdues] the breath within, like a bird caught in a net the mind also will be restrained [sink, subside, calm down, become quiet, be dissolved or cease being active]. This [the practice of breath-restraint or prāṇāyāma] is [therefore] a means to restrain [curb, calm, subdue, shut down or dissolve] [the mind].
உளமு முயிரு முணர்வுஞ் செயலு
முளவாங் கிளையிரண் டுந்தீபற
வொன்றவற் றின்மூல முந்தீபற.
uḷamu muyiru muṇarvuñ ceyalu
muḷavāṅ kiḷaiyiraṇ ḍundīpaṟa
voṉḏṟavaṯ ṟiṉmūla mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உளமும் உயிரும் உணர்வும் செயலும் உளவாம் கிளை இரண்டு. ஒன்று அவற்றின் மூலம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḷam-um uyir-um uṇarvu-[u]m ceyal-um uḷavām kiḷai iraṇḍu. oṉḏṟu avaṯṟiṉ mūlam.
அன்வயம்: உளமும் உயிரும் உணர்வும் செயலும் உளவாம் இரண்டு கிளை. அவற்றின் மூலம் ஒன்று.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḷam-um uyir-um uṇarvu-[u]m ceyal-um uḷavām iraṇḍu kiḷai. avaṯṟiṉ mūlam oṉḏṟu.
English translation: Mind and breath are two branches, which have knowing and doing. Their root is one.
Explanatory paraphrase: Mind and breath [or life, which includes breath and all other physiological functions] are two branches, which have knowing and doing [as their respective functions]. [However] their mūla [root, base, foundation, origin, source or cause] is one [so this is why when either one is restrained the other one will also be restrained, as pointed out in the previous verse].
இலயமு நாச மிரண்டா மொடுக்க
மிலயித் துளதெழு முந்தீபற
வெழாதுரு மாய்ந்ததே லுந்தீபற.
ilayamu nāśa miraṇḍā moḍukka
milayit tuḷadeṙu mundīpaṟa
veṙāduru māyndadē lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: இலயமும் நாசம் இரண்டு ஆம் ஒடுக்கம். இலயித்து உளது எழும். எழாது உரு மாய்ந்ததேல்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): ilayam-um nāśam iraṇḍu ām oḍukkam. ilayittu uḷadu eṙum. eṙādu uru māyndadēl.
அன்வயம்: ஒடுக்கம் இலயமும் நாசம் இரண்டு ஆம். இலயித்து உளது எழும். உரு மாய்ந்ததேல் எழாது.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): oḍukkam ilayam-um nāśam iraṇḍu ām. ilayittu uḷadu eṙum. uru māyndadēl eṙādu.
English translation: Dissolution is two: laya and nāśa. What is lying down will rise. If form dies, it will not rise.
Explanatory paraphrase: Dissolution [complete subsidence or cessation of ego or mind] is [of] two [kinds]: laya [temporary dissolution] and nāśa [permanent dissolution or annihilation]. What is lying down [or dissolved in laya] will rise. If [its] form dies [in nāśa], it will not rise.
ஒடுக்க வளியை யொடுங்கு முளத்தை
விடுக்கவே யோர்வழி யுந்தீபற
வீயு மதனுரு வுந்தீபற.
oḍukka vaḷiyai yoḍuṅgu muḷattai
viḍukkavē yōrvaṙi yundīpaṟa
vīyu madaṉuru vundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: ஒடுக்க வளியை ஒடுங்கும் உளத்தை விடுக்கவே ஓர் வழி, வீயும் அதன் உரு.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): oḍukka vaḷiyai oḍuṅgum uḷattai viḍukka-v-ē ōr vaṙi, vīyum adaṉ uru.
அன்வயம்: வளியை ஒடுக்க ஒடுங்கும் உளத்தை ஓர் வழி விடுக்கவே, அதன் உரு வீயும்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): vaḷiyai oḍukka oḍuṅgum uḷattai ōr vaṙi viḍukka-v-ē, adaṉ uru vīyum.
English translation: Only when one sends the mind, which will become calm when one restrains the breath, on the investigating path will its form perish.
Explanatory paraphrase: Only when one sends the mind, which will become calm when one restrains the breath, on ōr vaṙi [the investigating path or one path, namely the path of self-investigation, which is the one and only means to eradicate ego and thereby annihilate the mind] will its form perish. [However, the mind cannot be sent on this path of self-investigation if it has dissolved in laya, so if one practices breath-restraint in order to restrain the mind, one should take care to send the mind on this path of self-investigation (which means to direct one’s attention back towards oneself) when it has become calm but before it dissolves in laya.]
மனவுரு மாயமெய்ம் மன்னுமா யோகி
தனக்கோர் செயலிலை யுந்தீபற
தன்னியல் சார்ந்தன னுந்தீபற.
maṉavuru māyameym maṉṉumā yōgi
taṉakkōr seyalilai yundīpaṟa
taṉṉiyal sārndaṉa ṉundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: மன உரு மாய மெய் மன்னும் மா யோகி தனக்கு ஓர் செயல் இலை. தன் இயல் சார்ந்தனன்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): maṉa uru māya mey maṉṉum mā yōgi taṉakku ōr seyal ilai. taṉ iyal sārndaṉaṉ.
English translation: When the form of the mind is annihilated, for the great yōgi who remains permanently as the reality, there is not a single doing. He has attained his nature.
Explanatory paraphrase: When the form of the mind is annihilated, for the great yōgi who [thereby] remains permanently as the reality, there is not a single doing [action or karma], [because] he has attained his [real] nature [which is actionless being].
வெளிவிட யங்களை விட்டு மனந்தன்
னொளியுரு வோர்தலே யுந்தீபற
வுண்மை யுணர்ச்சியா முந்தீபற.
veḷiviḍa yaṅgaḷai viṭṭu maṉantaṉ
ṉoḷiyuru vōrdalē yundīpaṟa
vuṇmai yuṇarcciyā mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: வெளி விடயங்களை விட்டு மனம் தன் ஒளி உரு ஓர்தலே உண்மை உணர்ச்சி ஆம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): veḷi viḍayaṅgaḷai viṭṭu maṉam taṉ oḷi-uru ōrdalē uṇmai uṇarcci ām.
அன்வயம்: மனம் வெளி விடயங்களை விட்டு தன் ஒளி உரு ஓர்தலே உண்மை உணர்ச்சி ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): maṉam veḷi viḍayaṅgaḷai viṭṭu taṉ oḷi-uru ōrdalē uṇmai uṇarcci ām.
English translation: Leaving external phenomena, the mind knowing its own form of light is alone real awareness.
Explanatory paraphrase: Leaving aside [awareness of any] external viṣayas [namely phenomena of every kind, all of which are external in the sense that they are other than and hence extraneous to oneself], the mind knowing its own form of light [namely the light of pure awareness, which is its real nature and what illumines it, enabling it to be aware both of itself and of other things] is alone real awareness [true knowledge or knowledge of reality].
மனத்தி னுருவை மறவா துசாவ
மனமென வொன்றிலை யுந்தீபற
மார்க்கநே ரார்க்குமி துந்தீபற.
maṉatti ṉuruvai maṟavā dusāva
maṉameṉa voṉḏṟilai yundīpaṟa
mārgganē rārkkumi dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: மனத்தின் உருவை மறவாது உசாவ, மனம் என ஒன்று இலை. மார்க்கம் நேர் ஆர்க்கும் இது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): maṉattiṉ uruvai maṟavādu usāva, maṉam eṉa oṉḏṟu ilai. mārggam nēr ārkkum idu.
அன்வயம்: மறவாது மனத்தின் உருவை உசாவ, மனம் என ஒன்று இலை. இது ஆர்க்கும் நேர் மார்க்கம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): maṟavādu maṉattiṉ uruvai usāva, maṉam eṉa oṉḏṟu ilai. idu ārkkum nēr mārggam.
English translation: When one investigates the form of the mind without forgetting, there is not anything called ‘mind’. This is the direct path for everyone whomsoever.
Explanatory paraphrase: When one investigates [examines or scrutinises] the form of the mind without forgetting [neglecting, abandoning, giving up or ceasing], [it will be clear that] there is not anything called ‘mind’. This is the direct [straight or appropriate] path for everyone whomsoever.
எண்ணங்க ளேமனம் யாவினு நானெனு
மெண்ணமே மூலமா முந்தீபற
யானா மனமென லுந்தீபற.
eṇṇaṅga ḷēmaṉam yāviṉu nāṉeṉu
meṇṇamē mūlamā mundīpaṟa
yāṉā maṉameṉa lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: எண்ணங்களே மனம். யாவினும் நான் எனும் எண்ணமே மூலம் ஆம். யான் ஆம் மனம் எனல்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): eṇṇaṅgaḷ-ē maṉam. yāviṉ-um nāṉ eṉum eṇṇam-ē mūlam ām. yāṉ ām maṉam eṉal.
அன்வயம்: எண்ணங்களே மனம். யாவினும் நான் எனும் எண்ணமே மூலம் ஆம். மனம் எனல் யான் ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): eṇṇaṅgaḷ-ē maṉam. yāviṉ-um nāṉ eṉum eṇṇam-ē mūlam ām. maṉam eṉal yāṉ ām.
English translation: Thoughts alone are mind. Of all, the thought called ‘I’ alone is the root. What is called mind is ‘I’.
Explanatory paraphrase: Thoughts alone are mind [or the mind is only thoughts]. Of all [thoughts], the thought called ‘I’ alone is the mūla [the root, base, foundation, origin, source or cause]. [Therefore] what is called mind is [essentially just] ‘I’ [namely ego, the root thought called ‘I’].
நானென் றெழுமிட மேதென நாடவுண்
ணான்றலை சாய்ந்திடு முந்தீபற
ஞான விசாரமி துந்தீபற.
nāṉeṉ ḏṟeṙumiḍa mēdeṉa nāḍavuṇ
ṇāṉḏṟalai sāyndiḍu mundīpaṟa
ñāṉa vicārami dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: நான் என்று எழும் இடம் ஏது என நாட உள், நான் தலைசாய்ந்திடும். ஞான விசாரம் இது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): nāṉ eṉḏṟu eṙum iḍam ēdu eṉa nāḍa uḷ, nāṉ talai-sāyndiḍum. ñāṉa-vicāram idu.
அன்வயம்: நான் என்று எழும் இடம் ஏது என உள் நாட, நான் தலைசாய்ந்திடும். இது ஞான விசாரம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): nāṉ eṉḏṟu eṙum iḍam ēdu eṉa uḷ nāḍa, nāṉ talai-sāyndiḍum. idu ñāṉa-vicāram.
English translation: When one investigates within what the place is from which one rises as ‘I’, ‘I’ will die. This is awareness-investigation.
Explanatory paraphrase: When one investigates within [or inwardly investigates] what the place is from which one [or it] rises as ‘I’ [ego or mind], ‘I’ will die. This is jñāna-vicāra [investigation of awareness].
நானொன்று தானத்து நானானென் றொன்றது
தானாகத் தோன்றுமே யுந்தீபற
தானது பூன்றமா முந்தீபற.
nāṉoṉḏṟu thāṉattu nāṉāṉeṉ ḏṟoṉḏṟadu
tāṉāhat tōṉḏṟumē yundīpaṟa
tāṉadu pūṉḏṟamā mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: ‘நான்’ ஒன்று தானத்து ‘நான் நான்’ என்று ஒன்று அது தானாக தோன்றுமே. தான் அது பூன்றம் ஆம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu thāṉattu ‘nāṉ nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu oṉḏṟu adu tāṉāha tōṉḏṟumē. tāṉ adu pūṉḏṟam ām.
அன்வயம்: ‘நான்’ ஒன்று தானத்து ‘நான் நான்’ என்று ஒன்று அது தானாக தோன்றுமே. அது தான் பூன்றம் ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): ‘nāṉ’ oṉḏṟu thāṉattu ‘nāṉ nāṉ’ eṉḏṟu oṉḏṟu adu tāṉāha tōṉḏṟumē. adu tāṉ pūṉḏṟam ām.
English translation: In the place where ‘I’ merges, that, the one, appears spontaneously as ‘I am I’. That itself is the whole.
Explanatory paraphrase: In the place where ‘I’ [namely ego, the false awareness ‘I am this’] merges, that, the one, appears spontaneously [or as oneself] as ‘I am I’ [that is, as awareness of oneself as oneself alone]. That itself [or that, oneself] is pūṉḏṟam [pūrṇa: the infinite whole or entirety of what is].
நானெனுஞ் சொற்பொரு ளாமது நாளுமே
நானற்ற தூக்கத்து முந்தீபற
நமதின்மை நீக்கத்தா லுந்தீபற.
nāṉeṉuñ coṯporu ḷāmadu nāḷumē
nāṉaṯṟa tūkkattu mundīpaṟa
namadiṉmai nīkkattā lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: நான் எனும் சொல் பொருள் ஆம் அது நாளுமே, நான் அற்ற தூக்கத்தும் நமது இன்மை நீக்கத்தால்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): nāṉ eṉum sol poruḷ ām adu nāḷumē, nāṉ aṯṟa tūkkattum namadu iṉmai nīkkattāl.
அன்வயம்: நான் அற்ற தூக்கத்தும் நமது இன்மை நீக்கத்தால், நான் எனும் சொல் பொருள் நாளுமே அது ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): nāṉ aṯṟa tūkkattum namadu iṉmai nīkkattāl, nāṉ eṉum sol poruḷ nāḷumē adu ām.
English translation: That is at all times the substance of the word called ‘I’, because of the exclusion of our non-existence even in sleep, which is devoid of ‘I’.
Explanatory paraphrase: That [the one that appears as ‘I am I’, namely pure awareness, which is our real nature] is at all times the substance [or true import] of the word called ‘I’, because of the exclusion of our non-existence [that is, because we do not become non-existent] even in sleep, which is devoid of ‘I’ [namely ego].
உடல்பொறி யுள்ள முயிரிரு ளெல்லாஞ்
சடமசத் தானதா லுந்தீபற
சத்தான நானல்ல வுந்தீபற.
uḍalpoṟi yuḷḷa muyiriru ḷellāñ
jaḍamasat tāṉadā lundīpaṟa
sattāṉa nāṉalla vundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உடல் பொறி உள்ளம் உயிர் இருள் எல்லாம் சடம் அசத்து ஆனதால், சத்து ஆன நான் அல்ல.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḍal poṟi uḷḷam uyir iruḷ ellām jaḍam asattu āṉadāl, sattu āṉa nāṉ alla.
English translation: Since body, mind, intellect, life and darkness are all jaḍa and asat, they are not ‘I’, which is sat.
Explanatory paraphrase: Since [the five sheaths, namely] body, life, mind, intellect and darkness [the ānandamaya kōśa, the cittam or will, which is internal darkness in the form of the dense fog of viṣaya-vāsanās, inclinations or desires to seek happiness in things other than oneself] are all jaḍa [non-aware] and asat [unreal or non-existent], they are not ‘I’, which is [cit, what is aware, and] sat [what actually exists].
உள்ள துணர வுணர்வுவே றின்மையி
னுள்ள துணர்வாகு முந்தீபற
வுணர்வேநா மாயுள முந்தீபற.
uḷḷa duṇara vuṇarvuvē ṟiṉmaiyi
ṉuḷḷa duṇarvāhu mundīpaṟa
vuṇarvēnā māyuḷa mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உள்ளது உணர உணர்வு வேறு இன்மையின், உள்ளது உணர்வு ஆகும். உணர்வே நாமாய் உளம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uḷḷadu uṇara uṇarvu vēṟu iṉmaiyiṉ, uḷḷadu uṇarvu āhum. uṇarvē nām-āy uḷam.
அன்வயம்: உள்ளது உணர வேறு உணர்வு இன்மையின், உள்ளது உணர்வு ஆகும். உணர்வே நாமாய் உளம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): uḷḷadu uṇara vēṟu uṇarvu iṉmaiyiṉ, uḷḷadu uṇarvu āhum. uṇarvē nām-āy uḷam.
English translation: Because of the non-existence of other awareness to be aware of what exists, what exists is awareness. Awareness alone exists as we.
Explanatory paraphrase: Because of the non-existence of [any] awareness other [than what exists] to be aware of what exists, what exists (uḷḷadu) is awareness (uṇarvu). Awareness alone exists as we [that is, the awareness that actually exists, namely pure awareness, which is awareness that is aware of nothing other than itself, is what we actually are].
இருக்கு மியற்கையா லீசசீ வர்க
ளொருபொரு ளேயாவ ருந்தீபற
வுபாதி யுணர்வேவே றுந்தீபற.
irukku miyaṟkaiyā līśajī varga
ḷoruporu ḷēyāva rundīpaṟa
vupādhi yuṇarvēvē ṟundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: இருக்கும் இயற்கையால் ஈச சீவர்கள் ஒரு பொருளே ஆவர். உபாதி உணர்வே வேறு.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): irukkum iyaṟkaiyāl īśa-jīvargaḷ oru poruḷē āvar. upādhi-uṇarvē vēṟu.
English translation: By existing nature, God and soul are just one substance. Only adjunct-awareness is different.
Explanatory paraphrase: By [their] existing nature [that is, because the real nature of each of them is what actually exists (uḷḷadu), which is the pure and infinite awareness (uṇarvu) that shines eternally as ‘I am’, devoid of all adjuncts], īśa [God] and jīva [soul] are just one poruḷ [substance or vastu]. Only upādhi-uṇarvu [adjunct-awareness, namely ego or jīva, the adjunct-conflated awareness ‘I am this body’, which is what attributes adjuncts not only to itself but also to God] is [what makes them seem] different. [However, though the soul (jīva) is aware of itself as a certain set of adjuncts, namely the five sheaths that constitute whatever person it currently seems to be, and consequently attributes certain other adjuncts to God, God always remains just as pure awareness, in the clear view of which no adjuncts exist at all, so the differences between God and soul seem to exist only in the view of the soul and not in the view of God.]
தன்னை யுபாதிவிட் டோர்வது தானீசன்
றன்னை யுணர்வதா முந்தீபற
தானா யொளிர்வதா லுந்தீபற.
taṉṉai yupādhiviṭ ṭōrvadu tāṉīśaṉ
ḏṟaṉṉai yuṇarvadā mundīpaṟa
tāṉā yoḷirvadā lundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: தன்னை உபாதி விட்டு ஓர்வது தான் ஈசன் தன்னை உணர்வது ஆம், தானாய் ஒளிர்வதால்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): taṉṉai upādhi viṭṭu ōrvadu tāṉ īśaṉ taṉṉai uṇarvadu ām, tāṉ-āy oḷirvadāl.
அன்வயம்: தானாய் ஒளிர்வதால், தன்னை உபாதி விட்டு ஓர்வது தான் ஈசன் தன்னை உணர்வது ஆம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tāṉ-āy oḷirvadāl, taṉṉai upādhi viṭṭu ōrvadu tāṉ īśaṉ taṉṉai uṇarvadu ām.
English translation: Knowing oneself leaving aside adjuncts is itself knowing God, because of shining as oneself.
Explanatory paraphrase: Knowing [or being aware of] oneself without adjuncts is itself knowing God, because [God is what is always] shining as oneself [one’s own real nature, namely pure awareness, which is oneself without any adjuncts].
தானா யிருத்தலே தன்னை யறிதலாந்
தானிரண் டற்றதா லுந்தீபற
தன்மய நிட்டையீ துந்தீபற.
tāṉā yiruttalē taṉṉai yaṟidalān
tāṉiraṇ ḍaṯṟadā lundīpaṟa
taṉmaya niṭṭhaiyī dundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: தான் ஆய் இருத்தலே தன்னை அறிதல் ஆம், தான் இரண்டு அற்றதால். தன்மய நிட்டை ஈது.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): tāṉ-āy iruttal-ē taṉṉai aṟidal ām, tāṉ iraṇḍu aṯṟadāl. taṉmaya niṭṭhai īdu.
அன்வயம்: தான் இரண்டு அற்றதால், தான் ஆய் இருத்தலே தன்னை அறிதல் ஆம். ஈது தன்மய நிட்டை.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tāṉ iraṇḍu aṯṟadāl, tāṉ-āy iruttal-ē taṉṉai aṟidal ām. īdu taṉmaya niṭṭhai.
English translation: Being oneself alone is knowing oneself, because oneself is devoid of two. This is tanmaya-niṣṭhā.
Explanatory paraphrase: Being oneself [that is, being as one actually is without rising to know anything else] alone is knowing oneself, because oneself [one’s real nature] is devoid of two [that is, devoid of the fundamental duality of subject and object, knower and thing known, and also devoid of any possibility of being divided as two selves, one self as a subject to know the other self as an object]. This is tanmaya-niṣṭhā [the state of being firmly fixed or established as ‘that’ (tat), the one infinite reality called brahman].
அறிவறி யாமையு மற்ற வறிவே
யறிவாகு முண்மையீ துந்தீபற
வறிவதற் கொன்றிலை யுந்தீபற.
aṟivaṟi yāmaiyu maṯṟa vaṟivē
yaṟivāhu muṇmaiyī dundīpaṟa
vaṟivadaṟ koṉḏṟilai yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: அறிவு அறியாமையும் அற்ற அறிவே அறிவு ஆகும். உண்மை ஈது. அறிவதற்கு ஒன்று இலை.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): aṟivu aṟiyāmai-y-um aṯṟa aṟivē aṟivu āhum. uṇmai īdu. aṟivadaṟku oṉḏṟu ilai.
அன்வயம்: அறிவு அறியாமையும் அற்ற அறிவே அறிவு ஆகும். ஈது உண்மை. அறிவதற்கு ஒன்று இலை.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): aṟivu aṟiyāmai-y-um aṯṟa aṟivē aṟivu āhum. īdu uṇmai. aṟivadaṟku oṉḏṟu ilai.
English translation: Only knowledge that is devoid of knowledge and ignorance is knowledge. This is real. There is not anything for knowing.
Explanatory paraphrase: Only knowledge [in the sense of awareness] that is devoid of knowledge and ignorance [of anything other than oneself] is [real] knowledge [or awareness]. This [alone] is [what is] real [or true], [because in the clear view of oneself as pure awareness] there is not anything [other than oneself for one either] to know [or to not know].
தனாதியல் யாதெனத் தான்றெரி கிற்பின்
னனாதி யனந்தசத் துந்தீபற
வகண்ட சிதானந்த முந்தீபற.
taṉādiyal yādeṉat tāṉḏṟeri hiṟpiṉ
ṉaṉādi yaṉantasat tundīpaṟa
vakhaṇḍa cidāṉanda mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: தனாது இயல் யாது என தான் தெரிகில், பின் அனாதி அனந்த சத்து அகண்ட சித் ஆனந்தம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): taṉādu iyal yādu eṉa tāṉ terihil, piṉ aṉādi aṉanta sattu akhaṇḍa cit āṉandam.
அன்வயம்: தான் தனாது இயல் யாது என தெரிகில், பின் அனாதி அனந்த அகண்ட சத்து சித் ஆனந்தம்.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): tāṉ taṉādu iyal yādu eṉa terihil, piṉ aṉādi aṉanta akhaṇḍa sattu cit āṉandam.
English translation: If one knows what the nature of oneself is, then beginningless, endless and unbroken existence-awareness-happiness.
Explanatory paraphrase: If one knows what the [real] nature of oneself is, then [what will remain existing and shining is only] anādi [beginningless], ananta [endless, limitless or infinite] and akhaṇḍa [unbroken, undivided or unfragmented] sat-cit-ānanda [existence-awareness-happiness].
பந்தவீ டற்ற பரசுக முற்றவா
றிந்த நிலைநிற்ற லுந்தீபற
விறைபணி நிற்றலா முந்தீபற.
bandhavī ḍaṯṟa parasukha muṯṟavā
ṟinda nilainiṯṟa lundīpaṟa
viṟaipaṇi niṯṟalā mundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: பந்த வீடு அற்ற பரசுகம் உற்றவாறு இந்த நிலை நிற்றல் இறை பணி நிற்றல் ஆம்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): bandha vīḍu aṯṟa para-sukham uṯṟa-v-āṟu inda nilai niṯṟal iṟai-paṇi niṯṟal ām.
English translation: Standing in this state, thereby experiencing supreme bliss, which is devoid of bondage and liberation, is standing in the service of God.
Explanatory paraphrase: Standing [remaining, abiding or steadfastly being] in this state [of beginningless, infinite and indivisible sat-cit-ānanda], thereby experiencing supreme bliss, which is devoid of [the dyad or duality of] bondage and liberation, is standing in the service of God [or is standing as God directed].
யானற் றியல்வது தேரி னெதுவது
தானற் றவமென்றா னுந்தீபற
தானாம் ரமணேச னுந்தீபற.
yāṉaṯ ṟiyalvadu tēri ṉeduvadu
dāṉaṯ ṟavameṉḏṟā ṉundīpaṟa
tāṉām ramaṇēśa ṉundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: ‘யான் அற்று இயல்வது தேரின் எது, அது தான் நல் தவம்’ என்றான் தான் ஆம் ரமணேசன்
Padacchēdam (word-separation): ‘yāṉ aṯṟu iyalvadu tēriṉ edu, adu-dāṉ nal tavam’ eṉḏṟāṉ tāṉ ām ramaṇēśaṉ.
English translation: ‘I ceasing, what if one knows what remains, that alone is good tapas’: thus said Lord Ramana, who is oneself.
Explanatory paraphrase: ‘What [exists and shines alone] if one knows what remains after I [ego] has ceased to exist, [just being] that [namely egoless pure awareness] alone is good tapas [spiritual austerity or asceticism]’: thus said Lord Ramana, who is oneself [one’s own real nature].
இருடிக ளெல்லா மிறைவ னடியை
வருடி வணங்கின ருந்தீபற
வாழ்த்து முழங்கின ருந்தீபற.
iruḍiga ḷellā miṟaiva ṉaḍiyai
varuḍi vaṇaṅgiṉa rundīpaṟa
vāṙttu muṙaṅgiṉa rundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: இருடிகள் எல்லாம் இறைவன் அடியை வருடி வணங்கினர்; வாழ்த்து முழங்கினர்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): iruḍigaḷ ellām iṟaivaṉ aḍiyai varuḍi vaṇaṅgiṉar; vāṙttu muṙaṅgiṉar.
English translation: Touching the feet of God, all the ṛṣis paid obeisance; they sang aloud praise.
Explanatory paraphrase: Touching the feet of God [Lord Siva], all the ṛṣis [the ‘rishis’ or ascetics in the Daruka forest] paid obeisance [and] sang aloud praise [to him]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.133)
உற்றார்க் குறுதி யுபதேச வுந்தியார்
சொற்ற குருபர னுந்தீபற
சுமங்கள வேங்கட னுந்தீபற.
uṯṟārk kuṟudi yupadēśa vundiyār
soṯṟa gurupara ṉundīpaṟa
sumaṅgaḷa vēṅkaṭa ṉundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: உற்றார்க்கு உறுதி உபதேச வுந்தியார் சொற்ற குருபரன் சுமங்கள வேங்கடன்.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): uṯṟārkku uṟudi upadēśa-v-undiyār soṯṟa guru-paraṉ sumaṅgaḷa vēṅkaṭaṉ.
English translation: The supreme guru who sang Upadēśa Undiyār, an assurance to devotees, is the auspicious Venkatan.
Explanatory paraphrase: The supreme guru who sang Upadēśa Undiyār [as] an assurance to devotees [friends or those close to him, implying those who came to him for salvation] is the auspicious Venkatan [Sri Ramana]. (Tiruvundiyār 1.134)
பல்லாண்டு பல்லாண்டு பற்பன்னூ றாயிரம்
பல்லாண்டு பல்லாண்டு முந்தீபற
பார்மிசை வாழ்கவே யுந்தீபற.
pallāṇḍu pallāṇḍu paṯpaṉṉū ṟāyiram
pallāṇḍu pallāṇḍu mundīpaṟa
pārmisai vāṙgavē yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: பல் ஆண்டு, பல் ஆண்டு, பல் பல் நூறு ஆயிரம் பல் ஆண்டு, பல் ஆண்டும் பார்மிசை வாழ்கவே.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): pal āṇḍu, pal āṇḍu, pal pal nūṟu āyiram pal āṇḍu, pal āṇḍum pār-misai vāṙga-v-ē.
English translation: Many years, many years, many hundreds of thousands of years, many years may he shine gloriously on earth.
Explanatory paraphrase: [For] many years, many years, many hundreds of thousands of years, many years may he [Sri Ramana] shine gloriously on earth. (Tiruvundiyār 1.135)
இசையெடுப் போருஞ் செவிமடுப் போரும்
வசையறத் தேர்வோரு முந்தீபற
வாழி பலவூழி யுந்தீபற.
isaiyeḍup pōruñ cevimaḍup pōrum
vasaiyaṟat tērvōru mundīpaṟa
vāṙi palavūṙi yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: இசை எடுப்போரும், செவிமடுப்போரும், வசை அற தேர்வோரும் வாழி பல ஊழி.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): isai eḍuppōr-um, sevimaḍuppōr-um, vasai aṟa tērvōr-um vāṙi pala ūṙi.
அன்வயம்: இசை எடுப்போரும், செவிமடுப்போரும், வசை அற தேர்வோரும் பல ஊழி வாழி.
Anvayam (words rearranged in natural prose order): isai eḍuppōr-um, sevimaḍuppōr-um, vasai aṟa tērvōr-um pala ūṙi vāṙi.
English translation: May those who sing, those who hear and those who flawlessly understand shine gloriously for many aeons.
Explanatory paraphrase: May those who sing, those who hear [literally feed or fill their ears with] and those who flawlessly understand [this Upadēśa Undiyār] shine gloriously for many aeons. (Tiruvundiyār 1.136)
கற்கு மவர்களுங் கற்றுணர்ந் தாங்குத்தா
நிற்கு மவர்களு முந்தீபற
நீடூழி வாழியே யுந்தீபற.
kaṟku mavargaḷuṅ kaṯṟuṇarn dāṅguttā
niṟku mavargaḷu mundīpaṟa
nīḍūṙi vāṙiyē yundīpaṟa.
பதச்சேதம்: கற்கும் அவர்களும் கற்று உணர்ந்து ஆங்கு தான் நிற்கும் அவர்களும் நீடு ஊழி வாழியே.
Padacchēdam (word-separation): kaṟkum avargaḷ-um kaṯṟu uṇarndu āṅgu tāṉ niṟkum avargaḷ-um nīḍu ūṙi vāṙi-y-ē.
English translation: May those who learn, and those who, learning and understanding, stand accordingly, shine gloriously for long aeons.
Explanatory paraphrase: May those who learn [this Upadēśa Undiyār], and those who, learning and understanding [it], stand [remain or abide] accordingly [as beginningless, infinite and indivisible sat-cit-ānanda], shine gloriously for long aeons. (Tiruvundiyār 1.137)
Michael James is the world’s foremost scholar and English translator of Sri Ramana Maharshi’s writings. He worked closely for years with Sri Sadhu Om.
Translation and introduction © Michael James; licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA 4.0).
You may use the text on this page under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-SA 4.0).
This page was first published on September 4, 2023 and last revised on September 15, 2023.