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Our email address is editor @realization.org.

Copyright 2001 Realization.org.







A trepanned skull.

Photo courtesy ITAG.

Trepanation, the cutting of a permanent opening in the skull, is one of the oldest known surgical procedures.

Archeological evidence shows that it was practiced by peoples on every continent for thousands of years. It was still practiced in Europe as late as 1850.

Beginning in the 1960s, a small group of proponents began to revive trepanation in Europe. They claim the operation improves mental function by increasing bloodflow to the brain. Their theory is that more blood enters the skull with each beat because the brain is able to expand in size.



International Trepanation Advocacy Group
Excellent website run by proponents of trepanation. Articles, links, illustrations.

The Trepanation Trust
Website of an advocacy organization. Articles, bibliography.


You Need It Like... a Hole in the Head?
By Michael Colton Washington
From the Washington Post. On the website of ITAG.

The Hole Story
By Jon Bowen
Good article on Salon.com. Includes critical remarks by doctors.


This page was published on February 17, 2000 and last revised on May 8, 2000.

Copyright 2001 Realization.org. All rights reserved.