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Our email address is editor @realization.org.

Copyright 2001 Realization.org.


waves during meditation.


It's hard to imagine Buddha sitting in front of a computer screen with wires glued to his head.

But had he done so, he might have found enlightenment more quickly, according to advocates of neurofeedback.

Neurofeedback is a form of biofeedback based on brainwaves that requires the use of a machine that measures and displays the electrical activity of the brain. Such machines are called EEG machines. The initials stand for electroencephalogram, a neologism made from Greek words meaning "electrical head writing."

At the time this page was written (in 2000), the cheapest EEG machines available in the United States cost about $750.


The first EEG was recorded in 1908 by an Austrian psychiatrist named Hans Berger, although he waited until 1928 to publish his findings. He discovered that the brain produces strong waves of electricity in the frequency range between 8 and 12 Hz. He named this activity alpha waves.

In 1962, Joe Kamiya, a psychologist at the University of Chicago, discovered that people could increase the duration and strength of their alpha waves through neurofeedback.

When people did this, they often experienced bliss, deep peace, and altered states of consciousness.











How Will I Know If I'm Really Meditating?
By John S. Anderson
Neurofeedback helped the author learn to meditate, after years of effort with traditional techniques got him nowhere.

Mind Machine FAQ
By J. Brad Hicks
Answers to frequently asked questions about machines that help put you in meditative states.

Reference page on the scientific study of the brain and nervous system. Overview, references, and links.




FutureHealth Inc.
Enormous site devoted to neurofeedback and related topics. Offers numerous products for sale including instrumentation, systems, books, tapes, supplies, training, information, and consultation. Also includes hundreds of free abstracts from conferences run by FutureHealth, including Winter Brain and Optimal Functioning and Positive Psychology, and over 1000 quotations on mind-body, health, and spirit.

BrainMaster Home Page
The BrainMaster is a small, relatively inexpensive EEG machine for home biofeedback use that was designed through a public, collaborative process like the open software project that produced Linux. This page contains several interesting articles.




Time Flashes

By Michael Hutchison
A history of light and sound technology by the author of Megabrain. On the website of Synetic Systems, a manufacturer of light and sound machines. For more about Michael Hutchison's book Megabrain, see here.

Megabrain Report
By Michael Hutchison
The leading newsletter in this field. The first eight issues are on the website of Synetic Systems, a manufacturer of light and sound machines. For more about Michael Hutchison's book Megabrain, see here.

Practical Issues Concerning EEG Biofeedback Devices, Protocols and Methods
By Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D. P.E.
Excellent summary article about using EEG machines to alter consciousness by Tom Collura, the designer of the BrainMaster EEG machine.

Subjective Feeling States and EEG Results
By Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D. P.E.
This graph shows
how subjective states (grouchiness, dreaminess, etc.) correlate with dominant EEG frequencies.




Mind-L List
A popular mailing list where people discuss neurotechnology and related topics.




New Tools and Techniques for Brain Growth and Mind Expansion

By Michael Hutchison

An overview of all available technologies by Michael Hutchison, a bestselling author in the field. He's the publisher of Megabrain Report, the leading newsletter on neurotech. Some back issues of Megabrain Report are on the web here.


By Charles T. Tart

This is the book that popularized the phrase "altered states of consciousness." This classic anthology of research papers, first published in 1969 and now in its third edition (1990), was instrumental in making the study of altered states like hypnosis, dreaming, meditation, and drug-induced states respectable. It brings together many ground-breaking papers on biofeedback and meditation, including articles about EEG analysis of experienced meditators while they are meditating. ORDER IT


This page was published on January 29, 2000 and last revised on October 5, 2000.

Copyright 2001 Realization.org. All rights reserved.