waves during meditation.
hard to imagine Buddha sitting in front of a computer
screen with wires glued to his head.
had he done so, he might have found enlightenment more
quickly, according to advocates of neurofeedback.
is a form of biofeedback based on brainwaves that requires
the use of a machine that measures and displays the
electrical activity of the brain. Such machines are
called EEG machines. The initials stand for electroencephalogram,
a neologism made from Greek words meaning "electrical
At the time this page was written (in 2000), the cheapest
EEG machines available in the United States cost about
first EEG was recorded in 1908 by an Austrian psychiatrist
Berger, although he waited until 1928 to publish
his findings. He discovered that the brain produces
strong waves of electricity in the frequency range between
8 and 12 Hz. He named this activity alpha waves.
1962, Joe Kamiya, a psychologist at the University of
Chicago, discovered that people could increase the duration
and strength of their alpha waves through neurofeedback.
people did this, they often experienced bliss, deep
peace, and altered states of consciousness.
RELATED PAGES ON THIS SITE
Will I Know If I'm Really Meditating?
John S. Anderson
helped the author learn to meditate, after years of
effort with traditional techniques got him nowhere.
Mind Machine FAQ
J. Brad Hicks
to frequently asked questions about machines that help
put you in meditative states.
page on the scientific study of the brain and nervous
system. Overview, references, and links.
site devoted to neurofeedback and related topics. Offers
numerous products for sale including instrumentation,
systems, books, tapes, supplies, training, information,
and consultation. Also
includes hundreds of free abstracts from conferences
run by FutureHealth, including Winter Brain and Optimal
Functioning and Positive Psychology, and over 1000 quotations
on mind-body, health, and spirit.
BrainMaster is a small, relatively inexpensive EEG machine
for home biofeedback use that was designed through a
public, collaborative process like the open software
project that produced Linux. This page contains several
history of light and sound technology by the author
of Megabrain. On the website of Synetic Systems,
a manufacturer of light and sound machines. For
more about Michael Hutchison's book Megabrain,
leading newsletter in this field. The first eight issues
are on the website of Synetic Systems, a manufacturer
of light and sound machines. For more about Michael
Hutchison's book Megabrain, see here.
Issues Concerning EEG Biofeedback Devices, Protocols
Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D. P.E.
summary article about using EEG machines to alter consciousness
by Tom Collura, the designer of the BrainMaster EEG
Feeling States and EEG Results
By Thomas F. Collura, Ph.D. P.E.
how subjective states (grouchiness, dreaminess, etc.)
correlate with dominant EEG frequencies.
popular mailing list where people discuss neurotechnology
and related topics.
STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
By Charles T. Tart
This is the book that popularized
the phrase "altered states of consciousness." This classic anthology
of research papers, first published in 1969 and now in its third edition
(1990), was instrumental in making the study of altered states like hypnosis,
dreaming, meditation, and drug-induced states respectable. It brings together
many ground-breaking papers on biofeedback and meditation, including articles
about EEG analysis of experienced meditators while they are meditating.
page was published on January 29, 2000 and last revised on
October 5, 2000.