Summary of Essential Points
IN WALKING, a yogi should contemplate the movements
of each step. While one is walking briskly, each step
should be noted as "right step, left step" respectively.
The mind should be fixed intently on the sole of the
foot in the movements of each step. While one is in
the course of walking slowly, each step should be noted
in two parts as "lifting, placing." While one is in
a sitting posture, the usual exercise of contemplation
should be carried out by noting the movements of the
abdomen as "rising, falling, rising, falling." The same
manner of contemplation by noting the movements as "rising,
falling, rising, falling" should be carried out while
one is also in the lying posture.
it is found that the mind wanders during the course
of noting "rising, falling," it should not be allowed
to continue to wander but should be noted immediately.
On imagining, it should be noted as "imagining, imagining";
on thinking as "thinking, thinking"; on the mind going
out as "going, going"; on the mind arriving at a place
as "arriving, arriving," and so forth at every occurrence,
and then the usual exercise of noting "rising, falling"
should be continued.
there occur feelings of tiredness in the hands, legs
or other limbs, or hot, prickly, aching or itching sensations,
they should be immediately followed up and noted as
"tired," "hot," "prickly," "aching," "itching," and
so on as the case may be. A return should then be made
to the usual exercise of noting "rising, falling."
there are acts of bending or stretching the hands or
legs, or moving the neck or limbs or swaying the body
to and fro, they should be followed up and noted in
serial order as they occur. The usual exercise of noting
as "rising, falling" should then be reverted to.
is only a summary. Any other objects to be contemplated
in the course of training will be mentioned by the meditation
teachers when giving instructions during the daily interview
with the disciples.
one proceeds with the practice in the manner indicated,
the number of objects will gradually increase in the
course of time. At first there will be many omissions
because the mind is used to wandering without any restraint
whatsoever. However, a yogi should not lose heart on
this account. This difficulty is usually encountered
in the beginning of practice. After some time, the mind
can no longer play truant because it is always found
out every time it wanders. It therefore remains fixed
on the object to which it is directed.
rising occurs the mind makes a note of it, and thus
the object and the mind coincide. As falling occurs
the mind makes a note of it, and thus the object and
the mind coincide. There is always a pair, the object
and the mind which knows the object, at each time of
noting. These two elements of the material object and
the knowing mind always arise in pairs, and apart from
these two there does not exist any other thing in the
form of a person or self. This reality will be personally
realized in due course.
fact that materiality and mentality are two distinct,
separate things will be clearly perceived during the
time of noting "rising, falling." The two elements of
materiality and mentality are linked up in pairs and
their arising coincides, that is, the process of materiality
in rising arises with the process of mentality which
knows it. The process of materiality in falling falls
away together with the process of mentality which knows
it. It is the same for lifting, moving and placing:
these are processes of materiality arising and falling
away together with the processes of mentality which
know them. This knowledge in respect of matter and mind
rising separately is known as nama-rupa-pariccheda-ņana,
the discriminating knowledge of mentality-materiality.
It is the preliminary stage in the whole course of insight
knowledge. It is important to have this preliminary
stage developed in a proper manner.
continuing the practice of contemplation for some time,
there will be considerable progress in mindfulness and
concentration. At this high level it will be perceptible
that on every occasion of noting, each process arises
and passes away at that very moment. But, on the other
hand, uninstructed people generally consider that the
body and mind remain in a permanent state throughout
life, that the same body of childhood has grown up into
adulthood, that the same young mind has grown up into
maturity, and that both body and mind are one and the
same person. In reality, this is not so. Nothing is
permanent. Everything comes into existence for a moment
and then passes away. Nothing can remain even for the
blink of an eye. Changes are taking place very swiftly
and they will be perceived in due course.
carrying on the contemplation by noting "rising, falling"
and so forth, one will perceive that these processes
arise and pass away one after another in quick succession.
On perceiving that everything passes away at the very
point of noting, a yogi knows that nothing is permanent.
This knowledge regarding the impermanent nature of things
is aniccanupassana-ņana, the contemplative knowledge
yogi then knows that this ever-changing state of things
is distressing and is not to be desired. This is dukkhanupassana-ņana,
the contemplative knowledge of suffering. On suffering
many painful feelings, this body and mind complex is
regarded as a mere heap of suffering. This is also contemplative
knowledge of suffering.
is then perceived that the elements of materiality and
mentality never follow one's wish, but arise according
to their own nature and conditioning. While being engaged
in the act of noting these processes, a yogi understands
that these processes are not controllable and that they
are neither a person nor a living entity nor self. This
is anattanupassana-ņana, the contemplative knowledge
a yogi has fully developed the knowledge of impermanence,
suffering and non-self, he will realize Nibbana. From
time immemorial, Buddhas, Arahats and Ariyas (noble
ones) have realized Nibbana by this method of vipassana.
It is the highway leading to Nibbana. Vipassana consists
of the four satipatthana, applications of mindfulness,
and it is satipatthana which is really the highway
who take up this course of training should bear in mind
that they are on the highway which has been taken by
Buddhas, Arahats and Ariyas. This opportunity is afforded
them apparently because of their parami, that
is, their previous endeavors in seeking and wishing
for it, and also because of their present mature conditions.
They should rejoice at heart for having this opportunity.
They should also feel assured that by walking on this
highway without wavering they will gain personal experience
of highly developed concentration and wisdom, as has
already been known by Buddhas, Arahats and Ariyas. They
will develop such a pure state of concentration as has
never been known before in the course of their lives
and thus enjoy many innocent pleasures as a result of
suffering and non-self will be realized through direct
personal experience, and with the full development of
these knowledges, Nibbana will be realized. It will
not take long to achieve the objective, possibly one
month, or twenty days, or fifteen days, or, on rare
occasions, even in seven days for those select few with
should therefore proceed with the practice of contemplation
in great earnestness and with full confidence, trusting
that it will surely lead to the development of the noble
path and fruit and to the realization of Nibbana. They
will then be free from the wrong view of self and from
spiritual doubt, and they will no longer be subject
to the round of rebirth in the miserable realms of the
hells, the animal world, and the sphere of petas.
yogis meet with every success in their noble endeavor.