| The Upanishads differ from earlier Vedic texts in their
lack of emphasis on physical sacrifice and ritual. Instead
they speculate about the nature of reality and develop
the doctrine of Brahman. It is in the Upanishads that
the nondualistic equation of atman (self) and Brahman
The predominant school of Hindu philosophy, Advaita
Vedanta, is based on the Upanishads.
| TRANSLATIONS ON THIS SITE
is one of the shortest of the major Upanishads. It contains
a creation myth.
is one of the shortest of the major Upanishads. It usually
appears first in traditional compilations.
the most famous and widely-translated Upanishads. The
King of Death explains the nature of the Self and how
to realize it.
of this short Upanishad is the paradoxical nature of
knowing God. If you consider yourself to be the performer
of actions, such knowledge is impossible.
of only twelve verses, this is the shortest Upanishad.
According to Sankaracharya, this Upanishad, together
with Gaudapada's commentary on it, "contains the
epitome of the substance of the import of Vedanta."
short, poetic Upanishad makes the startling assertion
that the knowledge contained in the Vedas, the holiest
Hindu scriptures, is only a lower kind of knowledge.
It prescribes a higher knowledge, the apprehension of
the major Upanishads. It describes the five types of
prana. Translated by F. Max Müller.
Upanishad is of special importance to students of Advaita
Vedanta and Jnana Yoga because it's the only one that
sets forth the doctrine of the five kosas or
sheaths that conceal the true Self.