Now then Yoga is being explained.
Yoga is the suppression of the modifications of the
Then the seer abides in Itself.
At other times the seer appears to assume the form of
the modifications of the mind.
They (modifications) fall into five varieties, of which
some are 'klista' and the rest 'aklista'.
(They are) pramana, viparyaya, vikalpa, (dreamless)
sleep, and recollection.
(Of these) perception, inference, and testimony (verbal
communication) constitute the pramanas.
Viparyaya or illusion is false knowledge formed of a
thing as other than what it is.
The modification called 'vikalpa' is based on verbal
cognition in regard to a thing which does not exist.
(It is a kind of useful knowledge arising out of the
meaning of a word but having no corresponding reality.)
Dreamless sleep is the mental modification produced
by the condition of inertia as the state of vacuity
or negation (of waking and dreaming).
Recollection is mental modification caused by reproduction
of the previous impression of an object without adding
anything from other sources.
By practice and detachment these can be stopped.
Exertion to acquire sthiti or a tranquil state of mind
devoid of fluctuations is called practice.
That practice when continued for a long time without
break and with devotion becomes firm in foundation.
When the mind loses all desire for objects seen or described
in the scriptures it acquires a state of utter desirelessness
which is called detachment.
Indifference to the gunas or the constituent principles,
achieved through a knowledge of the nature of Purusha,
is called paravairagya (supreme detachment).
When concentration is reached with the help of vitarka,
vichara, ananda, and asmita, it is called samprajnata-samadhi.
Asamprajnata-samadhi is the other kind of samadhi which
arises through constant practice of paravairagya which
brings about the disappearance of all fluctuations of
the mind, wherein only the latent impressions remain.
While in the case of the videhas or the discarnates
and of the prakrtilayas or those subsisting in their
elemental constituents, it is caused by nescience which
results in objective existence.
Others (who follow the path of the prescribed effort)
adopt the means of reverential faith, energy, repeated
recollection, concentration and real knowledge (and
thus attain Asamprajnata-samadhi).
Yogins with intense ardor achieve concentration and
the result thereof quickly.
On account of the methods being slow, medium, and speedy,
even among those yogins who have intense ardor, there
From special devotion to Isvara also (concentration
Isvara is a particular Purusha unaffected by affliction,
deed, result of action, or the latent impressions thereof.
In Him the seed of omniscience has reached its utmost
development which cannot be exceeded.
(He is) the teacher of former teachers because with
Him there is no limitation by time (to His omnipotence).
The sacred word designating Him is pranava or the mystic
(Yogins) repeat it and contemplate its meaning.
From that comes realisation of the individual self and
the obstacles are resolved.
Sickness, incompetence, doubt, delusion, sloth, non-abstention,
erroneous conception, non-attainment of any yogic stage,
and instability to stay in a yogic state -- these distractions
of the mind are the impediments.
Sorrow, dejection, restlessness of body, inhalation,
and exhalation arise from (previous) distractions.
For their stoppage (i.e. of distractions) practice (of
concentration) on a single principle should be made.
The mind becomes purified by the cultivation of feelings
of amity, compassion, goodwill, and indifference respectively
towards happy, miserable, virtuous, and sinful creatures.
By exhaling and restraining the breath also (the mind
The development of higher objective perceptions called
visayavati also brings about tranquillity of mind.
Or by perception which is free from sorrow and is radiant
(stability of mind can also be produced).
Or (contemplating) on a mind which is free from desires
(the devotee's mind gets stabilised).
Or by taking as the object of meditation the images
of dreams or the state of dreamless sleep (the mind
of the yogin gets stabilised).
Or by contemplating on whatsoever thing one may like
(the mind becomes stable).
When the mind develops the power of stabilising on the
smallest size as well as on the greatest one, then the
mind comes under control.
When the fluctuations of the mind are weakened, the
mind appears to take on the features of the object of
meditation-whether it be the cogniser (grahita), the
instrument of cognition (grahana) or the object cognised
(grahya) -- as does a transparent jewel, and this identification
is called samapatti or engrossment.
The engrossment, in which there is the mixture of word,
its meaning (i.e. the object) and its knowledge, is
known as savitarka samapatti.
When the memory is purified, the mind appears to be
devoid of its own nature (i.e. of reflective consciousness)
and only the object (on which it is contemplating) remains
illuminated. This kind of engrossment is called nirvitarka
By this (foregoing) the savichara and nirvichara engrossments,
whose objects are subtle, are also explained.
Subtlety pertaining to objects culminates in alinga
or the unmanifest.
These are the only kinds of objective concentrations.
On gaining proficiency in nirvichara, purity in the
inner instruments of cognition is developed.
The knowledge that is gained in that state is called
rtambhara (filled with truth).
(That knowledge) is different from that derived from
testimony or through inference, because it relates to
particulars (of objects).
The latent impression born of such knowledge is opposed
to the formation of other latent impressions.
By the stoppage of that too (on account of the elimination
of the latent impressions of samprajnana) objectless
concentration takes place through suppression of all